What is COVID-19? A Detailed Guide

What is COVID 19?

You must know what is Covid-19 already. “Coronavirus”, being a big cause of a huge number of deaths in 2020, needs no further introduction but it still seems like a mystery. As even advanced treatment institutions, research centers or labs, and experts are unable to discover any treatment for this disease. And this is the reason that it has taken up the face of a pandemic. We are here with some facts about this with the motive of spreading more and more awareness regarding it. It includes its symptoms and the measures that one can take as prevention against the virus. As until now, there is no cure for it. Hence prevention is the only reliable tool.

Infections of the nose, sinuses or upper neck are typically the causes of Covid 19. SARS-CoV-2, is the virus responsible for COVID-19. It can manifest in either the upper (sinuses, nose, and throat) or the lower (windpipe, lungs) respiratory system.

Like other coronaviruses, it spreads mostly through interpersonal contact. There is a wide spectrum of infection severity.

Why is it called Covid 19?

So, what is Covid 19 and why is it called Covid 19? The International Committee on the Tsunami Victims (ICTV) and the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborated, however, to give the virus and sickness their current names:

  • The novel coronavirus was given the designation SARS-CoV-2 by the ICTV since it is thought to be associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome.
  • The new disease was given the acronym COVID-19 by the WHO, which stands for “coronavirusinfluenzadiseasein2019.”

These two bodies, along with the many scientists and experts all across the world, are ultimately responsible for naming and categorizing all new viruses and diseases.

History of Covid 19

As per experts, SARS –CoV-2 originated in bats. SARS-CoV-2 jumped directly at the humans at one of the open-air Wuhan “wet markets”. That is where the people buy fresh fish and meat.

Some wet markets sell banned and wild species such as wild boars, cobras, and raccoon dogs. Crowded situations allow viruses from several animals to swap genes. Most of the time virus changes so much and can start to infect and then, transmit among people.

COVID infected people who have had direct interaction with animals. This means that the virus transmitted from one to another. The virus then spread in the U.S and across the globe. This worldwide growing transmission is what a pandemic is.

The fifth known pandemic since the 1918 flu pandemic was caused by the unique human coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), originally discovered in Wuhan, China, in 2019.

Nearly two years after the initial discovery of COVID-19, there have been more than 200 million confirmed cases and more than 4.6 million fatalities as of September 2021. Here, we examine the development of COVID-19 in detail.

The World Health Organization (WHO) did alert about cases of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, on December 31, 2019, and this information led to the first confirmed case of COVID-19. The Chinese government identified a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, as the culprit of these cases on January 7.

A few weeks later, on January 30, 2020, the WHO designated the fast-expanding COVID-19 epidemic a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, the novel coronavirus didn’t receive its official designation until the 11th of February of the following month—COVID-19. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the death of the nation’s first COVID-19 victim nine days later. He lived in Washington state and was a man in his fifties.

Causes of Covid 19

Continuing with what is Covid 19, the scientific name of the virus that causes COVID is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is a member of the coronavirus family of viruses. While coronaviruses can infect both humans and animals, they only cause respiratory diseases in humans.

The COVID-19 virus has a large number of genetic variants. The spread of the virus, the severity of infection, and the protection you get from past infections, immunizations, or therapies, different COVID variations can impact all this. In Canada, the variations Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron are of particular importance (B.1.1.529).

Direct transmission of COVID-19 between individuals is possible via respiratory droplets. Aerosols released when an infected person coughs or sneezes can also expose you to the virus. These aerosols stay in the atmosphere for a very long time. The virus can also transmit by contacting your eyes, nose, or mouth after touching infected surfaces.

Those who are most at risk of exposure are:

  • People who frequently come into contact with non-immunized individuals
  • Those who provide care for people who have or may have COVID-19 Those who work in places where they are exposed to lots of people
  • A person who works in a group environment, such as a prison, a long-term care facility, a shelter, or a group home
  • Those whose ability to adopt public health policies is restricted by social, economic, or personal obstacles

Prevention of COVID 19

Pneumonia, respiratory failure, cardiac issues, liver problems, septic shock, and death are all possible outcomes of this infection. Cytokine release syndrome or a “cytokine storm,” may be the root cause of many of the difficulties of COVID-19. This is what happens when your immune system responds to an infection by unleashing a barrage of inflammatory proteins called cytokines into your bloodstream. They can cause organ failure and tissue death. Transplants of healthy lungs have been necessary for some circumstances.

Seek immediate medical attention if you or a loved one exhibit any of the following life-threatening symptoms:

  • Breathing difficulties; experiencing shortness of breath
  • Chronic discomfort in the chest
  • Confusion
  • Struggle to fully awaken
  • Colour change in the face or lips to a deep blue
Prevention of COVID-19
Tips to Prevent COVID Spread

Though COVID vaccines are now available and are also mandatory, precautions are still important to prevent the spread of COVID-19:

  • There are things which you can do for curing mild symptoms of coronavirus when you are staying at home (isolate yourself)
  • If you have a high temperature and get lost rest
  • Drink plenty of liquid to avoid dehydration it means, drinks enough so that your pee is light yellow and very clear without causing abdominal pain
  • In case of feeling uncomfortable take Paracetamol or ibuprofen
  • If you have a cough avoid lying on your back and lie on your side or sit upright in its place
  • Try to take a teaspoon of honey but don’t give honey to babies under 12 months
  • In case of feeling difficulty breathing, keep your room cool by heating down or opening a window, and don’t use a fan as it might transmit the virus
  • Sit upright in a chair and just relax your shoulders

Try to breathe slowly in through your nose and out through your mouth just like gently blowing a candle

Symptoms of Covid 19

Symptoms are the most important thing to know if you are wondering what is Covid 19. People with COVID-19 have had a vast range of symptoms that can range from mild symptoms (sneezing and cough) to severe illness. In this case, symptoms could even appear 2-14 days after exposure to the COVID virus. Let’s have a look at the symptoms which might have COVID-19.

  • Cough and Fever or Chills
  • Shortness of breath or feeling breathless
  • Muscle or body aches and fatigue
  • Continuous
  • New loss of taste or smell (Imp)
  • Sore throat and Diarrhea
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Vomiting or Nausea
  • It doesn’t include all possible symptoms

Time to seek emergency medical attention

Just check for emergency weaning symptoms for COVID-19 and if someone is facing any of these symptoms then, seek emergency medical care immediately

  • Persistent pain or check pressure
  • Trouble while breathing
  • New confusion
  • Bluish lips or face
  • Inability to wake or to stay awake

Well, this list isn’t all the possible signs. But whenever you feel any of these then, call the nearest medical provider for any other signs that are severe or concerning to you.

Many people aren’t sure when they are suffering from a cough or cold. They become confuse between Flu and COVID-19. In both cases, the signs are almost the same but yes, there are some differences by which you can get to know if is it common flu or COVID-19.

Flu (Influenza) and COVID-19 are both transmissible respiratory illnesses but they also occur by viruses.

There are some main differences between COVID-19 and flu. Covid-19 looks like it spread more easily than the flu and can cause more severe illnesses in some people. It also can take longer before people show symptoms and people can be infectious for longer.

Because the symptoms of COVID-19 and flu are almost the same and therefore it has become hard to differentiate them based on the symptoms only. Hence, it is necessary to get for COVID test to confirm a diagnosis. Flu and COVID-19 transmit several characteristics but there are some more main differences between both of them.

How severe is your COVID-19?

People with strong immune system may have COVID but without symptoms.

The government wishes to discover an antibody test so that we can come to know how many people have had coronavirus unknowingly, which means without any symptoms. Early research on a bit recommends that it could be 40-50% of cases. It might be more than 80% still don’t know.

If you are Asymptomatic then, it means that you don’t have any symptoms. Well, many reports mean loss of taste and smell sense in asymptomatic people, and technically even that is a sign. A test can only decide the severity of the infection as even asymptomatic cases can also potentially spread the virus.

Mild COVID-19

The virus possibly affects your upper respiratory tract, previously the large airways. The key symptoms are temperature with cough or without cough. Patients who are suffering from mild illness have flu-like signs. They might include mild fever or mild cough, but the fever might not reach 37.8°C and there might sometimes be less or even no cough. Patients might notice a feeling of being a bit more breathless than normal during the exercise.

Mild COVID-19 has:

  • High fever includes one that doesn’t reach the 37.8°C mark
  • You might also lose the smell and taste sense
  • You might have tiredness, headache, or muscles aches
  • You aren’t highly likely to have a sore throat or runny nose but they don’t happen in some cases
  • You don’t have marked breathlessness
  • You might feel weepy or sad
  • Your self-care, eating, cooking, and drinking aren’t affected
  • The symptoms typically seem to last about 7 to 10 days

Now, it is almost the end of the year and still, there are no treatments and cures for this disease. You have to take proper precautions, such as washing your hand constantly, proper sanitization, wearing the mask, and maintaining social distancing. Stay safe and stay healthy.

Competition to create the most efficient vaccination

Strict measures were enacted globally to combat the pandemic. In March, recommendations on how to properly wash one’s hands and restrictions on one’s ability to interact socially were implemented. Although we all knew that these efforts would help limit the spread of the virus whereas, scientists knew that a vaccine is necessary to defeat the pandemic. Human vaccine trials against COVID-19 using the Moderna mRNA vaccine will commence on March 17, 2020. It won’t be wrong to say that the treatment of covid 19 as of now is vaccination.

Limitations imposed at the outset were insufficient to halt the spread of COVID-19. Rapidly, restrictions tightened in most areas, with the United Kingdom imposing a stay-at-home rule on March 26. At the same time, many European countries imposed their national lockdowns. By April 2nd, the number of reported cases of COVID-19 around the world had risen to a staggering one million.

To combat the epidemic, stringent precautions are necessary in every region of the planet. March was the month that saw the beginning of preventative measures like social isolation, travel limitations, and other instructions. However, preventative efforts would only serve to delay the spread of the virus. The scientific community knew that to stop the pandemic, a vaccine is required. The first COVID-19 human vaccine trials using the Moderna mRNA vaccine will commence on March 17, 2020. United States is where the trials are completed.

It was abundantly obvious that the first limits imposed were insufficient to halt the progression of COVID-19. In a short amount of time, limitations became more stringent in the majority of regions. Where, United Kingdom enacting a stay-at-home regulation on the 26th of March. Around this period, a number of European countries put in place their versions of a national lockdown. As of the 2nd of April, the total number of COVID-19 cases across the globe had reached one million.

This statistic put light on the true gravity of the pandemic. And as a result, governments put all in their power to halt the progression of the disease until a vaccine developed that was deemed safe for humans. As further research came to show the significance of aerosols in the spread of the disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced guidelines on the 6th of April regarding the wearing of masks.


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